A small undecorated corridor (1.1m long by 0.9 wide and 1.6m in height) leads into the intimate part of the monument, the chapel (or shrine).
The chapel is almost square in section, being an average of 1.7m in height (decreasing slightly towards the western end), 3.0m across (north to south) by 2.75m in length (east to west).
At the east end is a large decorated niche, described in detail below.
The chapel had been greatly damaged by a fire, whose heat blistered the wall in many places and erased some of the colours, especially the black, fortunately without depositing soot. The texts suffered greatly, most of the time reducing them to fragmentary scraps. The following descriptions will assume the orientation of the chapel as being east to west, from entry to the niche, even though the axis is slightly rotated.
This wall, which is to the right on entering the chapel, includes three superimposed registers, of which only the upper one has survived in detail. Of the lower two very little remains (see ).
Bottom register (see )
Here remains the partial outline of an ox and two men who, having tethered its legs, are trying to wrestle it to the ground (see ). To the left, now lost, a man cuts off the foreleg of an ox while a comrade holds it.
This, which is almost lost, shows four men carrying a foreleg, a basket of onions, a bird, a tray of meat, and two jars of milk (?), and lead a gazelle and a hornless ox.
Here are found two squatting harpists (see ), a man and a woman, each of whom play curved harps with five strings (but nine pegs, which would permit them to change their length). The harp of the female musician is decorated with a checkerboard motif, with a woman's head at the top. That of the male musician has no design, but has the head of falcon. Both harpists belong to the vizier's household and, considering the size of their images, are important characters. They are identified on the north wall, where they are found as the
"singer, whom his master likes to have about him continually, Didiu (?) son of Ihemi" and the
"chantress, Khuwyt, daughter of Maket" (see ). The columns of the accompanying texts, of the songs, are to be read from left to right, even though the hieroglyphs in each face towards the right. The text chanted by the man has for its title something like
"Ninen belongs to life", written underneath the actual columns of text. The title of the other is lost.
The two texts, which Davies found difficult to translate because of their condition are based on the translations by Gardiner. They are as follows:
The song of Didiu is a long sequence of dark and obscure references, within which is often found a word translated as "Ninen", which could be a nickname of Antefoqer:
"Heaven is pregnant with the Seshat-star, heaven brings forth the Seshat-star. The Seshat-star is to her mother. Ninen belongs to health, … belongs to health. The vizier Antefoqer, born of Senet, belongs to health, Ninen belongs to life. The Seshat-star… 0 Seshat (?), make yourself for Ninen (?)… Ninen [belongs to] life, the vizier [Antefoqer] belongs to health… I sleep, I make my own body, these my breasts, these my…, these my…, these my fingers, these [vertebrae] of my back. These my… have not given you to… Night approaches, it breaks (?), …, it divides (?) its cup, it pours evil (?) The Seshat-star is to her mother.".
In the song of Khuwyt, mythological allusions seem to be interwoven with references to the welfare of the vizier.
"I have made her comings. Her comings are the comings of a pigeon… Isis… Horus fought with his brother Seth. He offers fuel… I go… Isis (or Nut?)… the face turned (?), nose reversed. The neck… Horus is to Isis (Nut?), not through the giving… The sovereign belongs to health, to life. The vizier Antefoqer belongs to health, he belongs to life. This Ninen belongs to life.".
Located to the left on entering the chapel, this again exists of three superimposed registers.
This is surmounted by a short and almost illegible inscription. Four men head towards the south wall and the now erased image of Antefoqer. The first (on the right) holds in his right hand a fan, whilst with the other he holds a small chest on his shoulder. The second tightly holds a vase of ointment in his arms. The third carries a large necklace, and the last holds up two items wrapped in cloth.
Middle register (see )
"The steward of the workshop, Antef" carries a large leg of meat. He is followed by
"the serving-man, Sehotpeyeb", bringing a tray of the fruits and vegetables, as well as a bunch of lotus flowers. Next come three women, the centre one of which is portrayed smaller than the other two. The first carries a vessel filled with breads, her name is unreadable. The smaller of the three, unnamed, carries a vessel on her head. At the end,
"the maid, Hotepet", carries a large vase with possibly a wide lid.
This represents a scene of a butcher's shop. At the left a man brings a calf towards the two butchers. The animal, an antelope, being butchered lies on its back, with the actual butcher about to cut off a section of ribs. At the rear of the animal, on the right, a man who holds on his left shoulder a container with already severed cuts of meat, and who also supports the rear legs of the animal. He says to his friend:
"Make leave to cut them well", to which the
"butcher, Amenemhat" replies:
"All right, I'm doing so".
A couple are seated in front of a pile of offerings (see ). The man has almost entirely disappeared, but without any sign of deliberate destruction. The woman places her hand on her husband's shoulder. However, his name, which would have permitted us to solve the Senet versus Satsasobek enigma, has disappeared.
In front of the couple can be seen, from top to bottom (see ) : a low bench holding vases containing the seven named unguents. Next, placed on a table supported by a single pillar, are several vertical loaves of bread, on top of which are piled: round breads, meats, bunches of onions and a leg of meat. Under the table, to the right of the support, is a basin and an ewer; what was at the other side is lost.
Bottom register (See )
This represents a further accumulation of offerings. On a table are three vases separated by two open lotus flowers. Above, can be recognised a basket-work lid with its ring-shaped handle. This served to protect the perishables from bugs. On a shelf of the table lies a strange looking plant, and underneath are the heads of four different animals: an ox with twisted horns, a gazelle, an ox without horns and a spotted ox with small horns. To the right of the table, two tall vases are surmounted by a strange object, in crescent shape of the moon, with two semi-circular depressions, from out of which spring the stems of lotus buds, at the sides of which are open blossoms. At the top, the artist has placed another basket-work lid. Next is a stool laden with three geese, on top of which are piled various fruits, some of which seem to have overflowed on to the lid covering the previous stack (see ).
The right-hand part of the scene, which certainly represented the sem-priest consecrating the offerings, has been painted out then removed. Logically, this role would normally have been filled by the vizier's son, who had the same name as his father. It has already been seen that he was the object of a
damnatio memoriae by Senet, who objected to this person or his actions, and not the action of the priests of Aten (see ).
Top register (See and )
This is filled with a tabular list of offerings which the deceased wished to be granted. Eighty items are arranged in four rows, each time with the item name, the quantity, and a small kneeling character presenting the product (see ).
To the right, the area is divided into two sub-registers.
In the top one, two men (identified as
"treasurer") offer long pieces of cloth and two items wrapped in cloth, whilst saying
"For your Ka!". Behind them, two kneeling lector priests make the gesture of jubilation, the
henu: left arm on the chest and right arm raised, whilst the text above them states:
"Reciting the formulae of transfiguration by the lector priest".
A line of text separates the two sub-registers, the later half of which is destroyed. This is repeated, more in tact, between a similar pair of registers on the south wall, where the translation will be given.
In the sub-register below, two other officiants recite the classic formula of offering, the
hotep di nesu, to Ra and to Geb. In front of them, another pours a libation of water, dedicating the offerings of the list.
This side of the wall is a near mirror image of the one which has just been described (the north wall), with a new setting (see ). This time it is the image of Antefoqer (?) that has been erased, whilst the remaining text made reference again to
"… his wife, his beloved, the priestess of Hathor, mistress of Inet, Senet, born of Dui", again without the husband's name. The tabular list of offerings still survives, part of which can be seen on the right in .
The upper part of this section of the wall consists two registers, which reflect the facing upper two of the north wall, with subtle changes (see ). Between them, the line of text is more complete than that of the north wall, so its missing beginning can be obtained from there. It says:
"A burial offering which the king, Ra, and Geb give: thousands of rations, of bandages, of rural offerings, to Senet, born of Dui, for her ka".
The bottom register of the erased figure of the officiant and pile of offerings is replaced here with another representation of the two harpists found on the east wall, northern part.
This time, three lector priests make the jubilation gesture whilst the text above them is the same as before, reciting the rituals of glorification, as found previously. Behind them, replacing the men carrying cloth items, stands a companion acting as mourner. In front of the priests is another man walking towards them, although his face is turned away from them. According to Davies, he is
"retiring", he sweeps away all traces of the meal and footsteps on the soil, as done every evening in front of the shrine of the gods in a temple, so that he rests in peace until the following day.
This has the scene of libation, as found on the opposite wall, with the same two officiants reciting the classic formula of offering. The texts here are poor, but probably the same.
Bottom register (See lower detail of )
Here, as previously mentioned, are two harpists. They are identified in two rows of text separating them from the songs, actually this time they are hymns, because they are both dedicated to the goddess Hathor. They are playing the same design of harp as they did before. Written horizontally immediately beneath the columns of text (mainly the first one, on the right) may possibly be the title of the hymns,
"A form of Jubilation, …". The following translations of the text are again based on those done by Gardiner.
– The first, sung by Didiu, and by far the best preserved of all four songs/hymns, is as follows:
"I make petition, may you listen, Majesty of Gold (a common name of Hathor)
. I make humble supplication, turn to [me] your heart. Hail to you, lady of fragrance, great Sekhmet, sovereign lady, worshipped one, serpent who is upon her father (this refers to the serpent emblem which appears on the crown of pharaoh)
, great one in front of her maker, advanced of place in the Bark of… striding within the cabin. Your arms… and your rays illumine the two lands. The two regions are beneath your sway. Mortals (?) are your cattle…". Several columns which follow have been painted out.
– The hymn by the chantress/harpist Khuwyt is very similar. The very badly damaged text is as follows:
"Hail to thee, Gold, I have praised you since I have been, my task is in speaking to you (until) I shall become old… miserable. Powerful one…, Gold, at [your] time…, your hour of hearing… Release you for me the vizier, good of disposition. You will create (?) a rule (?) within your limbs…". The two following columns have been painted out.
This includes two parts, separated by the opening of the niche. Both have been produced in the manner of false doors, both dedicated to the use of Senet.
A khekeru frieze separates the top of the false door from the ceiling. Beneath this is typical coving, but here it is only painted and not produced in carved relief. The geometric motifs of the door design are like those of the decorated facades of mastabas of the Old Kingdom and found on some wooden coffins, as are the two udjat eyes, also found here.
The lady Senet (who has almost disappeared today) is seated on a chair with high backrest, of which the feet are in the shape of paws turned towards the inside. In front of her is a table of offerings, with breads, vegetables, onions, meat and small containers.
A maid brings her a mirror and a jar to ointment. Her words to her mistress are in three short rows above her, now very difficult to decipher:
"For your Ka! The toilet chamber has made you alive, enduring and prosperous, as Ra, every day. Thot, master of the sacred word (= hieroglyphic writing)
, encourages you […]".
The scene is headed by a line of text in the standard offering formula form (the
hotep di nesu), addressed to Osiris:
"An offering of Osiris, lord of the west, invocation offerings, and thousands of cloth, offerings and delicacies for Senet, born of Dui, having allegiance to the great god, lord of heaven.".
The curved design which surmounts the "door" replaces the older type. This design will continue, and a close example is found in the chapel of Menna (see ). The two underlying panels are almost destroyed. They originally carried representations facing each other, probably of Senet.
This is comprised of two sections, a larger one followed of a narrower inner one. In total it measures 1.50m in depth (east to west), with each part being of approximately the same depth, the outer section being 0.85m in width and the inner being 0.60m. The heights also vary, being about 1.5m and 1.2m respectively. The floor level of the first corresponds with that of the chapel, whilst that of the inner section is slightly higher.
In the large section nearest to the chapel (which, remember, is above the entry of the funeral shaft), stood the statue of a seated Senet. Although found in pieces was able to be restored. This blocked the access and thus to the decor, strictly reserved to the deceased (s).
The external part includes three registers of offerings. On the top one are seven vases containing the seven canonical oils. In the middle, on (or perhaps actually in) chests, are necklaces of three designs, two at the left side and one on the right, separated by four other objects. At the bottom are three sealed vessels resting on a alter or table. To the left, a maid pours wine from a fourth into a goblet (see ). Behind her stands the bizarre looking plant which is also found lying under the offering table seen on the east side of the north wall in the chapel.
The inner part shows a maid (possibly the same one found on the entry wall to the niche) carrying a Hathoric mirror and a vase of ointments to Senet, who stands alone in front of her, breathing the scent of a lotus flower.
This originally carried two different representations, both with a man (Antefoqer?), once alone and once accompanied by Senet. However, both have been thoroughly erased. Davies did however recognise once again the words:
"… his wife, Senet, justified", but once again without name of the husband.
The rear wall of the niche included a false door stela in limestone, that was almost completely destroyed. According to the line drawing (see ), it was of a single woman seated in front of an offering table, which was located above the small artificial opening.
No better conclusion can be proposed about this false door than the comment made by Davies:
"Beyond its niche, which at once invites and refuses passage, lies the unknown. Four thousand years have not supplied the key to it, …… it is safe to say that four thousand years hence they will still be standing before that door which is no door, in violent rebellion, calm resignation, or invincible trust, according to the wisdom of the men and their moment, but in no case in knowledge."
The discoverers, impressed by the omnipresence of the vizier, had initially considered him as the owner before it was reallocated to a lady called Senet. The problem results from the fact that the link uniting Senet with the vizier is not clearly preserved, the reason being the inconvenient gaps in the texts. Senet, a popular enough name at the beginning of 12th Dynasty, can also mean "wife".
First of all, summarising the facts:
The final occupant of the tomb was Senet: her statue alone occupied the niche at the base of the chapel and the three stelae/false doors are to her name.
The mother of Antefoqer was called Senet, manifested by several documents, and whenever Senet is qualified as wife, the husband's name is missing. It might not therefore refer to Antefoqer, but to his father, who otherwise remains perfectly unknown.
A scene of the north wall shows Antefoqer had a woman identified as
"his wife, whom he loves, Satsasobek" (lit. "the daughter of the son of Sobek"). But this can also be read
"sat Sasobek", meaning
"the daughter of Sasobek", which could then indicate "Senet, the wife", because a character by the name of Sasobek is mentioned in the chapel. It is not very probable, but it is necessary to admit that two wives are represented in this tomb.
Senet, not being of royal blood (if she was, it would have been mentioned), owes her tomb to the influence of the vizier. This is why he is represented there so extensively. Without him, no monument, and he was anxious to show well that he was and remained for the eternity the supplier of all these good deeds.
Some images and inscriptions concerning Antefoqer have been erased deliberately without being able to discover the logic in why it was done. The carelessness or the ignorance of the iconoclasts can explain certain things, but it is difficult to understand why. In the first left part of the north wall, a very illuminated area with easy access, why had the image of Antefoqer fishing with a harpoon been erased and yet the one as hunter with a bow has been retained close by.
There is something else: it is not absolutely certain that each of the mutilated figures was of Antefoqer. Posener suggests that one of them could represent the husband of Senet, therefore the father of Antefoqer, but he offers no proof.
In the Cairo Museum are five alabaster plates representing prisoners and bearing texts of bewitchment against foreigners and against two Egyptians. One of them was
"the deceased Antefoqer, who was a child of Satsasobek, born to Antefoqer". From the woman's name, being very rare, it is certain that this text is directed against the vizier's son, who bears the same name as his father. It is not about personal vengeance, but of official lists grouping together foreigners who worry the royalty, without knowing why some Egyptians are found there. It isn't known if the reason of their presence is to look at their terrestrial existence, thus ensuring that their conduct will be with them in the hereafter.
Grajetzki brings the links between the deliberate erasing of some of the images of Antefoqer and the son's 'damnation from memory' even closer, and concludes:
"at least one member of the family obviously fell into disgrace".
From this, various hypotheses have resulted.
Senet was the vizier's mother, who only had one wife, Satsasobek. This is the hypothesis of Posener, which is only supported by negative arguments. It is, however, currently the most fashionable, but none of the authors who accept it bring additional elements to support it.
Senet and Satsasobek are two concurrent wives of Antefoqer, which would have meant therefore that he was polygamous: this is the idea of Davies.
Senet and Satsasobek are two successive wives of Antefoqer, a hypothesis held by Simpson then by Obsomer, and which seem to be the most probable. Obsomer, being based on the two different variants of the expression "birth of", suggests that the tomb had been made in two phases. It is also an argument to think that Senet followed Satsasobek. She didn't feel the need to attack the image of the first wife - or was not allowed to do so. It is also possible that the tomb has been begun by the vizier, who essentially produced the north wall, then it was finished by only Senet.
Everything appears as if Antefoqer had wished to act for the two women of his life: he was anxious to evoke the image of his first wife, Satsasobek, who had given him the only child which is known (Antefoqer junior), while the place of honour was given to the second.
The reasons for erasing Antefoqer remain obscure. Political power may have wanted to make disappear any traces of a man who had become too powerful. Sesostris I can be remembered by the fact that his father had been an influential vizier before his reign. This could explain the exile which befell the son. It also strange that the latter is not mentioned in the monument, and it is not impossible that he was also erased.
Senet could also be a suspect, whoever she is, for an unknown motive: the death of the vizier, the will to distance herself from a character who had become cumbersome, an obligation imposed from outside.
Without new data, it will be impossible to decide.
As with other tombs of the necropolis, TT60 became a source of curiosity and pilgrimage at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty. Much graffiti, written in hieratic script, attests the passage of the literate (i.e. scribes) as they visited what they considered to be a source of inspiration for replication in later tombs. In total thirty-six pieces of graffiti were located and recorded by Davies. All of these, with the exception of one, are located within the passageway, the other being in the chapel.
One among them, N°33, has been identified as being created by the character known as Amenemhat, scribe, accountant of the grain and steward of the vizier under Thutmosis III, thus probably preserving the handwriting of Amenemhat. When he decided to decorate his own tomb, TT82, his craftsmen would be inspired by the decor of Antefoqer. His writing states:
"The scribe Amenemhet, son of the elder of the forecourt [Djehutymes, born of [An]tef, came to see [this] tomb of the vizier Antefoqer. It was pleasant in [his] heart… profitable for eternity. His name shall exist… offerings in it, saying: 'An offering which the king gives to Osiris in front of [the westerners]… Ra, and the gods, lords of the necropolis; invocation offerings of bread and beer, oxen and geese, linen and cloth, incense and oil, all things good and pure which heaven gives and earth creates and Nile brings as his offering to the ka of Antefoqer, justified.".
Two visitors, impressed by the feminine predominance, and not well versed in the texts, even assigned the tomb to queen Sobekneferu, last sovereign of the 12th Dynasty.
Another example, seen in the photo opposite, with an overlay effect, is graffiti N°25, which is on the north side of the passageway, at the level of the hunt scene in the desert. The translation is by Gardiner:
"An offering made by the king to Amen-Ra, king of the gods, to Osiris, lord of the great assembly, to Ptah the great, south of his wall, and to Anubis at the head of the white land, pure of face in every place, with striding foot in the place of… the scribe, Sennefer".
Most are in the format of graffiti N°2:
"The scribe Bak [came] to see [this] tomb of the time of Sebeknofru. He found it like heaven in its interior."
Sometimes the scribe came alone to leave his mark, sometimes (as indicated in the graffiti) he was accompanied by "his friend", who was also named.
The writer of one of these inscriptons, N°29, knew explicitly when the tomb was created, as indicated in his graffiti:
"The scribe Dhuty, justified, came to see this tomb from the time of Kheperkare (Sesostris I)
. Thereupon he praised god greatly.". This graffiti can be seen with an overlay effect in . Like graffiti N°25, this is also located on the north wall of the passageway, but on the upper register of zone 8.