Une cathédrale souterraine rendue aux touristes à Alexandrie


Bien qu'il ne s'agisse pas d'Égypte Pharaonique, je trouve très intéressante cette réouverture à la visite des citernes d'Alexandrie, réhabilitées sous la direction de JY Empereur. De l'Antiquité à la fin du XIXème siècle, les Alexandrins stockaient dans ces centaines de citernes l'eau qu'un canal amenait depuis le Nil, à une trentaine de kilomètres à l'est d'Alexandrie. Les visiteurs découvriront les différents étages sur des passerelles, remonteront dans un musée qui présentera des maquettes de plusieurs autres réservoirs et expliquera "comment les Alexandrins captaient, stockaient et distribuaient l'eau durant les 2.300 ans d'histoire de leur cité".

Thanks to JE Empereur and the Center of Alexandrian Studies, some of the cisterns of Alexandria have been restaured and one of them is opened to the public. From the antiquity to the 19th century, the inhabitants of the town stored the water from the Nile flood in these cisterns and used it all the year long.

Abydos: A place with many ancient stories to tell

(E) Source: EEF

Le site d'Abydos est un des plus important d'Égypte, recouvrant toutes les périodes historiques. Les plus anciennes représentations des métiers de la guerre viennent d'y être mises à jour. De plus des monuments témoignant de la grande importance politique des femmes dans cette région ont également été retrouvés: un temple probablement dédié à la reine Ahmes-Nefertari, et un de la reine Tétishéri.
Des briques estampillées ont été mises à jour. Elles ont donné lieu à une intéressante mise au point de Stephen Harvey sur le forum EEF. Avec son autorisation, vous trouverez cette mise au point ci dessous.

Under the leadership of Egyptologist Stephen Harvey, a team of archaeologists from the University's Oriental Institute will soon begin to excavate recently discovered buildings from a critical era in ancient Egyptian history. The discoveries are part of a collection of artifactual documentation that pushes back the date of complex artistic representation of warfare in Egypt. One of the buildings the team discovered earlier this year is a temple that likely was dedicated to Ahmose Nefertary, the wife and sister of the Pharaoh Ahmose, who ruled from about 1550 to 1525 B.C. and built Egypt’s last pyramid. The team also excavated at a pyramid dedicated to another important woman, Queen Tetisheri, grandmother of Ahmose and his wife.

Chicago Chronicle

Stamped mud bricks have also been discovered, and here is, with his authorization, the text of Stephen Harvey posted on the EEF forum:

The practice referred to in the online article on my work is actually that of stamping mud bricks with the names of individuals (both royal and non-royal), and sometimes with the names of institutions. The article quoted me in reference to my site, the cult complex of King Ahmose at Abydos, in which we find the first widespread use of this practice in Egypt. The great majority of the bricks found throughout the various structures are stamped with a variant of the phrase " Nebpehtryre (=Ahmose), beloved of Osiris," but we have recently uncovered two structures in which the bricks are stamped with the name of "the God's Wife, the Great Royal Wife, King's Daughter, King's Mother, Ahmose-Nefertary" (Ahmose's sister and wife).
To make the matter even more interesting, the bricks forming the enclosure wall of one of these structures bears the inscription of the "Chief Treasurer Neferperet," a figure known from other sources to have been active in royal construction projects late in the reign of Ahmose. The use of bricks naming several individuals in one structure complicates matters, in the sense that one cannot describe the function of brick inscriptions as simply providing the name of the builder, dedicatee, or architect/contractor. To make matters more complicated, the pyramid-shrine of Tetisheri at the site is constructed of Ahmose bricks, despite the evidence of the text of the stela found within that indicates clearly the dedication of the monument by Ahmose to his gradmother Queen Tetisheri (why no stamps with her name or that of her economic foundation?).
Prior to the discovery of the wall formed of bricks with Neferperet's name, I might have said that the practice at south Abydos was essentially an economic one, reflecting the source of the royal economic foundation responsible for making the bricks (and thus for building the temple). The fact that Ahmose's name usually occurs in the context of his relationship with Osiris would seem to reinforce not only royal agency but the special nature of Ahmose's Abydos incarnation. The example of Neferperet, however, implies to me a mark of royal privilege rather than a " signing" of a monument by its architect (though there is in a way a precedent for this as far back as the time of Djoser, upon whose statue base the architect Imhotep's name appears). I am now inclined to view the appearance of Neferperet's name at Abydos as part of a broader process whereby the highest officials are afforded a prominent role within royal contexts. Compare the roles of Neshi on the Kamose stela, that of Senenmut at Deir el-Bahri, Amenhotep son of Hapu at Thebes, etc. Stamped bricks in any case are not effective as a "signature" since they would have been invisible once the building or wall was complete and covered with plaster; perhaps this is in fact the point, in the same way that Senenmut's image and name is hardly visible at Deir el-Bahri. Placing the Senenmut example in a broader context might actually decrease the need to emphasize special conditions surrounding his status in Hatshepsut's reign.

For stamping bricks and the later history of the practice, which was widespread in the New Kingdom and later, see A. J. Spencer, _Brick
Architecture in Egypt_ (Aris and Phillips, 1979). Stephen Harvey
The Oriental Institute
The University of Chicago

What Lies Beneath


Un article sur les difficultés et l'urgence des fouilles dites de sauvegarde, en particulier en Alexandrie et en Assouan. L'urbanisation galopante est un danger majeur pour les antiquités.

In Asswan, Alexandria, as in other cities once inhabited by ancient civilizations, concrete buildings with deep foundations are replacing mud brick dwellings. In a few years, what remains of the ancient city may be lost forever as the construction boom that accompanies hurried urban expansion pours an impregnable layer of concrete over the ancient sites.

The Paleoepidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Ancient Egypt

(E) source: EEF

Un article long et complet est téléchargeable au format PDF concernant cette maladie endémique en Égypte. Retrouvée depuis l'époque pharaonique (dans les momies), elle est toujours très présente dans l'Égypte actuelle.

This paper reconstructs the paleoepidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt. The oldest human cases were dated to Pharaonic Egypt. The development of irrigation in Egypt provided conditions favorable for schistosomiasis, especially Schistosoma haematobium infection, and infection rates apparently increased until recent years. Studies using new diagnostic tools that permit the screening of large numbers of mummies and naturally preserved bodies and correlation of their infection status with local environmental conditions may further elucidate the evolution of the schistosomiasis disease complex.

Pharaonic gate of Edfu Temple opens for first time since 2200 years


Le temple d'Edfou va avoir une nouvelle entrée. Je me demande ce que cela veut dire? On entre déjà par la "porte" normale en passant sous le pylône ??

The Edfu Temple will receive visitors as of early next year at its original entrance that opens for the first time since 2200 years after the end of restoration and works in the monument.

Conférence: Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams."
(Proceedings of the International Conference "Origin of the State.
Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt", Krakow, 28th August - 1st September 2002).

Vous pouvez télécharger le résumé des communications.

The MsWord/doc file can be downloaded here

De nouvelles publications sur le site de Sjef Willcokx ( membre d'Egypt Ring):

New Visual stories on Sjef Willcockx site ( member of Egypt Ring)

The following Articles and Visual Stories are now available:
* The formative period of pharaonic Egypt
* Some remarks on King Tut's grave
* The One and the Many: one book, many misunderstandings
* Bark stations and other elements of the procession way
* Building in stone in ancient Egypt, part 1: Columns & pillars
* The mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II, at Deir el Bahri
* Lotus & papyrus: symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt

Monuments of Akhnaton and Nefertari in Atun Museum in Minya


Tout est dans le titre. Le musée devrait ouvrir dans les deux ans.

The new museum should open within two years

Ode on an Egyptian vase


Restauration achevée d'un très beau vase Alexandrin du IVème siècle. Il représente trois guerriers et des prêtres


History of a now completely restored 17 centimetre alexandrian vase of a slender neck and flaring shape is decorated with three warriors adorned in formal military uniform and two other men in white linen robes of the type worn by priests. The scene is framed with yellow, pink, and green plants as well as geometrical designs.

Voici exposés les projets du Service des Antiquités par l'intermédiaire de son secrétaire général Zahi Hawass.
Un tiers des objets du Musée actuel vont être déplacés soit dans le Grand Musée à Guiza, soit dans le Musée de Fustat qui va être bâti dans le vieux Caire.
Les objets du trésor de Toutankhamon seront transférés au Musée de Guiza, tandis que les momies royales iront à Fustat.

There is an obvious need to find a better way to display the objects of the museum, and some reorganisation of the galleries is needed to ensure that our visitors can move around in an orderly fashion. To this end, we are currently developing a plan to move about one-third of the artefacts in the museum to other locations for display purposes. This available space will allow us to upgrade the display area in the museum. The interior will be redesigned to ensure the smooth flow of visitors, and an annex will be constructed to the west which will be used as an exit.The other event was the recent launching of the Grand Museum Project, aimed at building a new state- of-the-art museum in the shadow of the Giza Pyramids. In addition, the construction of a National Museum at the site of Fustat in Old Cairo to be built under the auspices of UNESCO is planned to house a unique collection of artefacts that will span the breadth of Egyptian history, from prehistoric times to the present. Incidentally, the Tutankhamun treasures now on display in the Egyptian Museum in Al- Tahrir Square will be transferred to the new museum at Giza, while the Royal Mummies will move to the National Museum in Fustat.

Tell Tebilla, 2003: End of Season Summary submitted to SCA


Un résumé de la saison de l'université de Toronto sur ce site, avec photos.

Summary of the excavations of the university of Toronto. With Photographs.

L'Egypte des gros


65% [Sic! le calcul est faux] de la population égyptienne est obèse. C'est ce qui ressort d'une étude du Centre national de nutrition du Caire effectuée en 2002. L'obésité touche particulièrement les urbains et les femmes. Un véritable problème de santé publique que les autorités peinent à prendre en compte alors que l'OMS a déclaré l'obésité « épidémie globale ».

65% [Sic!]of the Egyptian population is obese, especially in the towns and among the women.