(Room II of MIFAO, room V of Porter & Moss)
This room served for the storage of offerings, and objects which could be used for cult worship.
On either side of the passage, which is approximately 1m in length, 2m in height and only 0.7m in width, Ty is shown standing with his long staff in his hand and a piece of fold cloth in the other. In each case he faces in the direction of the corridor, in order to receive visitors. In front of him, two columns of text provide his name and some of his titles. A comparison between the images taken by Steindorff in 1910 (see ) and the present images show the abrasion of the walls by the neglectful visitors (see and ).
Once over the threshold, the room is found to be fairly long (about 5.0m), narrow (about 1.5m) and very high (about 4m). Immediately it can be seen that the magnificent reliefs have kept their polychromy, but which, alas, because of their height they are in fact difficult to examine (see and ). The tops of the walls are decorated with narrow frieze, using a simple geometric pattern and the vertical edges have a border using the traditional Egyptian frieze of coloured rectangles (see for example ).
East (entry) wall
The narrow entry, approximately 0.7m wide by 2.1m in height, is located at the bottom right of this wall. At the storeroom end it is has an enlarged recessed to take a door, enlarged by about 20cm on either side and by about 10cm at the top. This recess is undecorated, leaving a large area above and a narrow area at the left side for its decoration. It is occupied entirely by representations of various kinds of pottery which are arranged in seven registers, of which the lower two are very short because they occupy the area at the side of the entry opening. A large area is undecorated at the bottom, forming the usual dado/protection area.
Only certain colours have survived, notably the red of some tables and the upper part of five vases (third register, on the left), also a dark brown for some of the other tables.
The registers are designed in a common format: with containers (in pottery and prossibly in metal) placed on the top and underneath tables.
On registers one and two there are four pitchers with a spout, and, between them, what could be an oil lamp. Under the bottom table, two wide vases are positioned at the outer edge of three very narrow ones (possibly for perfume?).
On register three, some wide containers are located under the tables, with taller vessels on top, five narrow-necked vases, five tapered, five pitchers with handles and finally two narrow-necked ones.
Register four is more varied: on the left stands a large vase consisting of two parts, a small bottom section and a 'V' shaped container at the top. Then on two tables are small vases with narrow necks. Finally, five more large vases occupy the whole height of the register, again the outer one having the large 'V' shaped top with a notched rim.
The three top registers continue with the general design used on register three, with the narrower vessels on top of the tables and wider ones below. There is quite an assortment of vessels, the frustration is not knowing their content, since there are no accompanying texts. Thus a puzzle remains about the right-hand vessel of register four: why does it have a notched rim?
(See ) Ty, accompanied by his wife, his two main sons and important servants, attends a great parade of eighty-one porters, spread across four registers. On the three upper registers accumulate the foodstuffs which have been transported. In general, this wall is well preserved, even though at its left extremity it is a little damaged; this is how the son behind Neferhetepes, who is, by deduction, Demedj, has lost his titles. Then the condition improves and the colours are actually very well preserved for the first six porters, a lot less for next four, but the last seven have retained all their splendour.
By clicking on this link, a global view of the scenes can be seen.
1) - Ty and his companions
The standing figure of Ty wears a short cut square beard, occupying the height of three registers. He holds the long staff with his left hand and a folded piece of linen with the right hand. As with all the men, his skin is dark red. The colour of his wig (just like the one of Neferhetepes) has, with time, changed from black to blue. At his feet is his second son, Ty (junior), chief of the breeders of ducks, one of which he holds in his right hand, whilst in his left he clutches his father's staff.
The column of text in front of Ty and his son, giving the titles and functions of Ty are very well preserved, but they are without colour, except for some rare isolated signs, for example those at the bottom of the column:
"the unique friend, Ty" (see ). Some of these have retained the blue colour, the two feather glyphs have their magnificent green colour, and higher up the bread hieroglyph has retained the red colour. The column edge markers have also kept some of their blue colour.
Singly, on four registers behind Ty, are officials of his household, the lower one is identified as a servant of the Ka (or funerary priest), the third is only identified as a scribe. Neferhetepes kneels behind her husband. She holds on to his right leg with her left hand, while she rests her right arm on her thigh. Her hands are long and the tapering fingers are very visible. Above of her, her titulature is well preserved. She wears a black wig (today blue) falling on both sides of her shoulders. Her dress is supported by straps, which leaves (illogically, as seen) her breast uncovered. Around her neck are two necklaces, one of which hangs on her chest, whilst the other is fastened tightly around her neck.
The quality of the relief is remarkable, as is the top part of the body of Demedj, behind her. He holds his left arm folded on his chest; his hand, as the one of his mother, is long and thin, and his fingers can easily be distinguished.
2) - The parade of the porters of offerings
On the left, up to the 12nd porter of register one: see , , , and .
Next is a zone where the colours have not survived as well: see
Then, from the 18th to the 25th porter, the colours recover their brilliance: see , and .
Even the border frieze is visible, which is not frequent in this tomb: see the right-hand edge of .
(See and ). This is nearly symmetrical with the south wall, but is even better preserved (see for example ). Ty can again be seen accompanied by his wife, two sons and some servants, looking at a parade of sixty-eight porters of various offerings, on four registers. The offerings, as on the south wall, can be seen accumulated in the five registers above the ones with the porters. The decoration of the wall would have been complete, except that a recess is cut about 1.50m from the entry wall on the right. This opening measures 1.75m wide and several tens of centimetres deep. It is undecorated, and encroaches into the bottom register by about a third of the register height. This annexe was intended to be present from the outset, as indicated by the decoration (a variety of breads) which is placed above it, of which size and number have been adapted to the space available (see ).
For this wall, the photographic coverage is available by register:
Register 1 (porters) : see , and .
Register 2 (porters) : see , , and .
Register 3 (porters) : see , , and .
Register 4 (porters) : see , , and .
Registers 5 to 9 (offerings) : see , and
1) - Ty and his companions
This is the least well preserved area of the wall, but it still remains legible. This time it is Demedj who holds his father's staff, while holding a duck in the other hand. Three servants are represented behind the column of hieroglyphs dedicated to Ty's wife, Neferhetepes, who again kneels behind her husband, holding the lower part of his left leg (see ). On the first register, which is immediately under her, the first part of which occupies the space between the door and the annexe alcove, four men advance from the right. In the lead is the
"servant of the ka, Ini", followed by three scribes: Khenu, Hesen and Hemnu ().
2) - The porters
Totalling sixty-eight, they are very well preserved. Apart from the six men bringing two poultry, they are nearly all different, even though one can recognise a common base model for their structure. The draftsman had to have separate models for the body and the positions of arms according to the offerings being carried.
(See ) Here is one of the best known walls of Egyptian funeral iconography. It is excellently preserved and details the manufacture of bread, beer and pottery, as well as the recording of the results by the scribes attached to the domain: a whole section of economic activity is summarised into a coherent composition.
Pierre Montet described it well in "Scènes de la vie privée" ("Scenes of private life"), and translated into most languages. [N.B: the translations that given here are drawn extensively from this work, but there are exceptions: for example, he translates bsA as "barley", whereas the present dictionaries say: B.Menu: "finely ground grain" or Sadek: "cereal, maybe barley"].
Firstly, examining the entire west wall, as a , then the lower part (), and then the upper part ().
The wall measures 1.55m wide by 4.50m in height, of which the upper 2.75m is decorated. It contains scenes with seventy-four characters distributed in seven registers of identical height, which gives an impression of continuity. The register at the top (N°7), is occupied by the manufacture of pottery, the bottom register (N°1), represents the accounting of the records. In the middle is found, on registers N°2,3, and 4, the manufacture of bread; whilst on registers N°5 and 6 is the manufacture of beer.
It is not possible to follow the various stages of manufacture based on the chronology of the registers, thus it is necessary to reconstruct the order of the scenes in a different way.
1) - Pottery : Register 7
On this register, the highest, is displayed the manufacture of the pots, indispensable to the cooking of bread and to the brewing and storage of beer, activities which are always intimately connected.
On the left stands a large oven, striped horizontally, which could suggest the idea of plates on which pots are placed to bake. A man is seated in front of the opening and fans the flames, whilst raising his hand to protect his face from the heat. Above him it states, 1:
"heating the oven".
Next comes all the stages of manufacture, with, in first place a turner, who is seated low to the ground. The pot is turned on a table whose disk is rotated by the action of his right hand, whilst the left hand models the opening of the pot (see ). This could be the oldest depiction of a potter's wheel of ancient Egypt (Jaromir Malek). The legend specifies the nature of the task, 2:
"turning the Knw pots". The wet vessels are represented stacked above, before being baked. According to Egyptian perspective, it is necessary to understand of course that they are carefully aligned.
Next comes the scenes of finishing: two potters stand back to back in front of tall jars which they either inspect or correct minor flaws. The two legends, which are also placed back to back, having the determinative "jar" in common at the middle, 3:
"turning a jar" /
"modelling a jar". A seated man, on the right, holds aloft with one hand a container, whilst with his other he plunges it into the opening, smearing the inside with a product named
"sin" (this product is not named in the tomb of Ty, but it is known from other tombs). It is very probably a form of clay, intended to seal the jar, or a glaze. Finally, a last character, on the left, arranges the finished pots on shelves.
2) - Manufacture of bread : Registers 4,3 and 2
(Line drawing and photo : )
This has, at its centre two sub-registers.
The beginning of the manufacture is located at the left extremity, where the granary stands, consisting of three cylindrical silos with pointed tops, resting on a pedestal so that they are not in contact with the ground. At their base is an opening through which grain can flow. The text above (1) them states:
"the granary which is in the house of grains, under the leadership of the team of the month". The seated scribe (in the top sub-register) is evidently part of the work force. His role is to record the quantity of grain taken by the man crouching at the foot of the front silo (in the bottom sub-register).
At the right-hand side stand two men, face-to-face, using long pestles to grind the grain, to detach the husk from it, and to begin the crushing. Above them, the legend (7) says:
"pounding", which is done by each man in turn, one regulating the alternation of the pounding, with (5)
"come down now!", whilst the other confirms this with (6)
"I've done it".
At the centre of both sub-registers are some women (note their yellow skin, very different from the brick-red of the men), one of whom is (2)
"measuring the grain" (which has been ground), which is poured for a sifter who is provided with a round sieve to remove the husk from the actual grain, (3) :
"sifting the grain". This followed by grinding into flour, (4)
"grinding the grain".
(Line drawing and photo : )
This is again, in part, made up of two sub-registers, divided into two more or less equal parts by a man standing near the centre at the height of the full register. His image is partially destroyed. He is, according to the text (2) above him:
"the person responsible of the workshop", who leans forwards on to a staff which is invisible today, this is the classic stance of the supervisors to the Old Kingdom.
On the left pair of sub-registers, six women are grinding the grain on their millstones, which has come from the previous operations and which is in containers and bags opposite them. At the right edge of this section, two women (one in each sub-register) seated on the floor and who are occupied with (1)
"sifting the flour". Their oblong sifter separates the fine flour from the coarser flour, which will be returned for further grinding, and so forth.
On the right-hand side of the person in charge, two other women sift the flour whilst the following four are occupied with grinding. At the extreme right, the two last are clothed in dresses with shoulder straps (all others have a naked chest). This pair collect the finished flour and put it into containers.
(Line drawing and photo : )
This register covers the baking of the bread. The Egyptians could bake bread in an oven or directly over embers. But most of the time, they used a wide terracotta vessel to mold the bread "bedja" (there was also a "setchet" mold, to be discussed below, and an "aparet" mold). This container was first heated, then, it was placed on the ground and filled with dough, whilst a second mold, placed upside-down covered the first. [N.B: an analogous utensil named "the diable" existed which was used to cook potatoes or chestnuts]. The scene is represented as follows: ten pots (and not nine as is written in the literature, based on Montet) are built into pyramid form around a central hearth. This is stirred by the seated woman with her right hand (provided with a poker), whilst protecting her face with the left hand. Above her, the text (1) states:
"heating the oven". Standing in front of her is another woman who arranges the pots, openings downwards, with her text (2) :
"checking the oven". On the right of the register, can be seen a similar scene with the same legends, but this time it is a man who stacks the pots and also a man who stirs the embers of the fire.
The middle of the register is again sub-divided. On the lower sub-register, on the left, a wide pot-bellied vessel contains (3)
"dough". The woman bending with her back to it, her hair enclosed in fabric wrap, is occupied (4)
"pouring the dough" into a hot mold which has come out of the oven. Opposite her, another, but with a close cropped wig, is occupied (5)
"kneading the dough". Another couple carry out a similar action behind them, the one on the left pours into a wide container on the ground a preparation with the name of "hesa", of which Montet demonstrated that it refers to leavened bread. Finally, the worker on the right (4) is
"pouring the dough" in the bedja pots. Two among them are closed, they contain the dough which is therefore already cooking.
In the upper sub-register, of the first two women, the first bending and the other seated, check with the help of a stick to see if the bread is cooked; the action is commented thus, (6)
"checking the bread". Following this, two seated men strike the bottom of a pot, as the text (7) states:
"making the bead fall", which will then be placed in a basket.
As a small aside, the designer of the wall has included, on the left side of the upper sub-register, a child who feasts on a fragment of freshly baked bread.
3) - Brewing of beer : Registers 5 and 6
An activity fundamental to the daily life, the manufacture of ancient Egyptian beer is however still not fully understood. No tomb includes a complete illustration of the - long - process, and the explanations proposed for it are from scenes coming from different places. Even a series of representations as outstanding as those found in Ty is no exception to the rule.
"It is certain that ancient Egyptian beer was made using bread and a fragrant liquid; the mixture was brewed on a filter and the liquid collected was the one that was drunk under the name of beer (heneqet). P. Montet firstly assumed that this liquid was made from dates." (Vandier)
(Line drawing and photo : )
This is the first of the two registers dedicated to the manufacture of beer. The beginning of the scene is located on the right: a man stands withdrawing the contents from a very large jar, laying horizontally on several supports. It seems to contain something made with grain, probably cereals germinated under special conditions known as malting (see image opposite). Below, a kneeling man is in the process of (8)
"spreading" this malted grain, which has the effect of stopping the germination. The scene is described thus:
"kneading the uncooked bread". In front of him another person is occupied (6)
"moulding the loaf" to form oblong lumps, which are transported on a tray. In front, is a man who, leaning forwards, stirs a mixture in a large container, which rests on a pedestal. The scene is described by the word (5)
"dnt", which Montet has not included, but which according to Wörterbuch 5,464-2 could mean
"soaking", probably referring to the soaking in water of the previously moulded lumps of bread, and to mix it in the deep container to make a liquefied dough, later seen being poured from a jar. If this is the case, it seems difficult to see why the dough had to be moulded into the shape of bread.
At the left end of the register, some moulds are heated, and the scene looks like the one of the manufacture of bread, but the vessels are not 'bedjas', as for the bakery: they represent beer vessels (
"sSt" or setchet), these are wider and not as deep. It is a man who, this time, stirs the ashes, whilst protecting his face. The legend (1) specifies:
"firing the beer vessel". In front of him another man takes a vessel, withdrawing it (presumably with hand protection), the legend above (2) states:
"taking the bread-dough". Behind him, one of his companions pours the now fluid dough into one the moulds which has just left the oven. The legend (3) explains:
"pouring the dough". The cooking could not be too intense, because of the risk of destroying the malt enzymes. The dough having been very fluid, the breads were more friable, which facilitated their subsequent crumbling.
(Line drawing and photo : )
The bread, having been manufactured, the actual brewing can begin. The loaves are crumbled and the fragments soaked in a large wicker container, with water and the rest of the uncooked bread, the mixture being stirred by two men. The basket sits on a large pot fitted with a flared spout in which the mixture flows when it is sufficiently fine. On the left, the mash is added from jar. The (4)
"scribe of the warehouse", with his work instruments under his arm, stimulates the brewers with the words (5)
"make it ready!" to the workers in front of him, and (3)
"make it quickly!" to those behind him. This is to encourage them not to waste time because some of the ingredients were quite perishable. The first text (1) says:
"straining" (or filtering the brew), the second (2) is
"pouring the mash", ("sgnn" =mash).
A man seated on the right of the brewers adds a final touch to the jars which are going to receive the beer, whilst checking the coating inside one of them (see image opposite). The containers are then raised vertically (as seen to the right) in a support. In this next scene can be seen one of the brewers pouring the previous preparation in one them, using a vessel with a spout, text (7) :
"filling the jars". Immediately, another worker closes the container using a flat plug, which will be topped with a cone made of clay (both are black). The action is described (8) as:
"closing the jars".
Above, to the left, a man sits in front of four closed jars; his is (6) :
"guaranteeing the authenticity" by labelling the jars, indicating the quality the beverage, place and date of manufacture.
4) - Recording accounts : Register 1
(Line drawing and photo : )
On the first register (at the bottom of the wall), officials give their accounts to the scribes who record the results, which will be subsequently communicated to Ty. The texts of this register were especially difficult to render.
• On the right (see ) are seated the scribes, with firstly a character designated (5+2) as
"the steward, Sheset-seped". He writes using a stylus on the papyrus which is open on his knees. At his feet, his palette rests casually against a box, in which are arranged scrolls of papyrus, which are arranged by size. It is the role of (4)
"the archivist, Imem", whose name and title are at the right edge of the register, to take care of the scrolls, one of which is in his hand. Behind the steward, the two scribes are identified as (7)
"the scribe, Hen" and (6)
"the scribe, Hemmu". The text (3) which runs over the three of them states:
"Receiving the reports of the domains of the foundation".
• On the left (see ), just in front of the steward, stoops a man identified as
"the measurer, Neferhy" who plunges his measuring instrument into a vessel. Seated behind him is
"the inspector of the priests of the ka, Ini". Then, stooping as a sign of respect, comes a foreman with the name of
"Niankh-Bastet", described as
"powerful of voice": perhaps he announces, in a loud voice, the nature of the products to be recorded, as well as their quantity. At the extreme left is a scene which it may be assumed was created to amuse the designer of the wall:
"The guardian, Iunenek" administers a beating to a (1)
"Head of the warehouse". The designer had probably had the opportunity to receive a beating from various supervisors or managers, and was not sorry to perpetuate the spectacle.
Located against the left edge is a bag (?), very tall and narrow, whose nature remains mysterious.
Entrance doorway to the chapel
On leaving the storeroom, turning right into the corridor, a few steps leads to the entrance passage to the chapel in the middle of the south wall (see ). This, like those which preceded it, is extremely narrow, about 0.70m wide by just over 2m in height. This passage is about 1.0m in length and decorated on both side walls with a standing figure of Ty facing into the second corridor. The accompanying text once again gives his name and titles.
At the chapel end it widens to form a recess for a door, which would have opened into the chapel. The recess was undecorated.