When on November 4th, 1922, Howard Carter discovered the almost intact tomb KV62 of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Nebkheperoura, the Son of Ra Tutankhamun, a major page in archaeology opened up. For the first time, the Egyptologists and the public, spellbound, discovered the splendour by which the kings of Egypt surrounded themselves, with the thousands of objects present in the tomb, and the magnificent sarcophaguses, thrones and masks of gold would inflame the imagination for generations of archaeologists and tourists.
The circumstances of the discovery having been detailed amply by Carter, it will not be reiterated here, but this page will continue with the actual description of the tomb.
The recurrent theme is to regret the fact that only the tomb of a "minor" Pharaoh has been recovered intact, and to imagine what might have been buried with a prestigious Pharaoh after a long reign. Could it be more prudent to say that this tomb dates from the 18th Dynasty, one of the most prestigious and richest in the history of Egyptian, and that moreover it concerns a king situated in a transitional period of history which it contributes to illuminate, and finally that it is not obvious that the discovered funerary material was so much less abundant than that of any other Pharaoh with a longer reign and a bigger tomb.
Perhaps in larger tombs equivalent quantities would have been recovered, but spread over a larger area, in more chambers.
THE KING TUT-ANKH-AMUN
Tutankhamun (~1335-1327 B.C.) was the son of the "heretical" pharaoh Akhenaten.
His maternal origin, as do his conditions of accession to the throne, remain under discussion. The survey of the DNA of some members of the royal family of the Amarna period are said to show that he was not the son of Nefertiti, nor that of the lady Kiya (the two usually quoted wives of Akhenaten), but of a girl related to Amenhotep III and Akhenaten. He was therefore the fruit of an incestral relationship, which explains well his debilitated nature (see below).
However, it seems clear that his legitimacy was not in question by his contemporaries. He ascended the throne under the name of Tutankhaton "The living image of Aton", In year 2 of his reign he renounced the Amarna heresy and re-establishes the cult of Amun, as he described it on what is called "the restoration stela" which he had erected in the temple of Karnak. He then changed his name to Tutankhamun "The living image of Amun" and returned to Thebes, abandoning his father's ephemeral capital, Akhetaton.
But he was still a child, who would not know how to govern Egypt, and it seems that two of his sisters, notably Merytaton, intrigued to separate him - temporarily - from power, apparently without result.
The governing of the country was entrusted to three main characters: Ay, the "divine father" (an epithet whose specific significance still escapes us), who played the central role of regent; Mayan, who was in charge of the treasury; and general Horemheb, at the head of the army. Under this competent direction, Egypt restored its interior and outside power, as testified by the magnificent tomb which general Horemheb made for himself, constructed in Saqqara (see the tomb of general Horemheb).
Tutankhamun died young, at about 19 years old, around 1352 B.C., without having engendered a prince heir.
The circumstances of his brutal death always remain mysterious, but the publication in March 2005, the report of the scanning survey of the king's mummy permits the separation of hypothesis from murder, at least by a blunt instrument. The king presents a fracture of the leg which, if it was open, could have been the cause of death by infection (see scanner image). The king's skull shows no trace of a blow, as was believed earlier.
In 2010, a survey of very important comparative genetics illustrated the journal of the American Medical Association: "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family".
||Abstract from JAMA 303(7): p.638-647, 2010
| (See genealogy tree.) The genetic fingerprints permitted the construction of a pedigree based on 5 generations in the direct hierarchical lineage of Tutankhamun. The KV55 mummy and the KV35YL mummy have been identified as being the parents of Tutankhamun (it would be Akhenaten and one of his biological sister's father: AMENHOTEP III; mother?), therefore neither Nefertiti, nor Kiya). No sign of gynecomastia, of craniosynostosis (e.g. syndrome of Antley-Bixler) or of syndrome of Marfan were discovered, but an accumulation of deformations, present in the family of Tutankhamun is evident. Several pathologies including the decease of Kohler II3 has been diagnosed with Tutankhamun. None of these pathologies taken separately was able to induce death. Genetic tests for genes STEVOR, AMA1 or MSP1, specific of Plasmodium falciparum revealed a sign of "malaria tropica4" in four mummies including that of Tutankhamun. These results suggest an "avasculaire necrosis of the bone in conjunction with a paludal infection" as the most likely cause of the death of Tutankhamun.
The existence of problems with walking seems confirmed by the discovery, in the tomb of Tutankhamun, of 130 walking sticks. Besides, several pharmaceutical products were also found, intend for his life in the beyond, testifying very certainly of his state of precarious health.
His successor, who was already old when he ascended the throne, was the "divine father" Ay. It was he who organised his funerary ceremony in the Valley of the Kings, in accordance with tradition, and uniquely, his name appears in the tomb of his successor. On his swift death (only 4 years later), it is yet another character who didn't have a legitimate right to the throne either, the general Horemheb, who follows him. Only with this is the Amarna episode finally considered as closed, and his years of reign will be counted from the last "legitimate" Pharaoh, Amenhotep III.
The following generations and especially the Ramessides would then endeavour to erase all trace of this period whilst erasing from official lists all kings between Amenhotep III and Horemheb.
It is certainly not for its size or for the wealth of its decoration that the tomb is famous.
The small size of the tomb is often understandably emphasised: it is indeed the smallest of the royal tombs of the Valley of the Kings, of which it doesn't follow the general plan. It is thought that it was originally destined for a non royal character of high rank, who could have been Ay, and that it had been decorated in a hurry at the time of the unexpected death of the king.
The tomb originally begun for Tutankhamun was probably the one which would finally be continued (but not finished) and used only 4 years later by Ay, KV 23. It is in the east branch of the valley, and situated next to that of Amenhotep III, which is surely not by chance: whether it was Tutankhamun or Ay, both had in their heart to legitimise themselves by getting closer to the tomb of the last sovereign preceding the "heretical" period.
Although very small and of a style very different from the others, it was estimated however that it combined sufficient canonical criteria to permit a ritual burial and to constitute the king's tomb, with notably a change of axis. Whereas the tomb of Akhenaton, which he construct for himself, in Amarna, was a tomb with a unique axis, so that nothing hindered the solar light.
It represents a rupestral tomb whose entry is carved directly into the limestone of the main Wadi of the valley.
A staircase of 16 steps lead to a short corridor of 7.60m. oriented to the east, which opens directly on to the antechamber. Six of the original steps, the lowest ones, were carved deeper when it was necessary to give access to the large sized funerary furniture into the tomb. They were rebuilt subsequently in stone and mortar to restore them to their original height.
The sides of the corridor were smoothed correctly but no sealer had been applied. At the time of the discovery, all this section had been filled with rubble in an attempt to protect the access of the tomb, but in vain. Originally, the material recovered earlier by Carter in 1907, in a cache, would have been found there. The corridor was also closed by plastered masonry. Behind this appeared the antechamber including the very important furniture.
All precautions had to be taken to secure the burial. It didn't stop the tomb of Tutankhamun from receiving at least two visits by the tomb rapists, a very short time after the funeral. But the Theban necropolis was well guarded, and no other visit took place until the digging of the tomb of Ramesses VI of the 20th Dynasty. At this time, a collapse had amazingly hidden the king's tomb, and on which the workers built their cabins and thus prevented the great depredations from the end of the 21st Dynasty until its rediscovery in 1922.
ANTECHAMBER AND ANNEXE
The antechamber was named thus by Carter, this oblong room is arranged perpendicularly, with a south-north orientation. The walls had been plastered, but no decoration has been carried out.
On the west wall, on the left, opens up a room, named the annexe, whose floor is about 1m. below the level of the antechamber. This was not decorated either.
These two chambers were discovered full of funerary material, essentially (but not exclusively) with the name of the young king. Their organisation had however been disrupted completely by the pillagers. The inspectors who intervened after the depredation put them back in a semblance of order, but without obviously taking their work to heart, stacking the objects untidily in the caskets and pushing the long objects against the walls without care. Carter even wondered why they had taken this effort, judging by the result.
The North wall of this room includes an opening toward the burial chamber. It was initially closed and plastered, with innumerable seals of the necropolis affixed to the plaster. It had also been pierced by the pillagers then restored after the passage of the inspectors. On each side of the opening, while defending the entry as Anubis would have done, the famous statuaries of the king, in blackened wood (see unidia-35477).
THE BURIAL CHAMBER
This is the only decorated chamber of the tomb. At the time of discovery, it was occupied entirely by the great chapels in wood surrounding the royal sarcophagus (measuring 5 x 3.30 x 2.73 m.), leaving only a very small amount of free space by the walls (75 cm.). On the ground of this space were arranged objects with magic value, and notably 11 oars for guidance.
This chamber is lower in relation to the antechamber, and it is probable that it had originally to be widened to contain the large golden chapels. It thus reproduced the appearance of a classic tomb where a hypostyle chamber existed heightened in relation to the burial chamber.
The four walls had been dressed with plaster and then decorated. The ceiling remained as is. All of the walls are surmounted by the sign of the sky (Gardiner N1), supported by narrow pillars at its two extremities, at the south end of the east wall and originally on the east end of the decorated area of the south wall (in the area damaged by Carter) next the doorway.
The decorative themes are simple, less numerous, and the haste which presided over the finished work can be felt. This would have been made more difficult due to the lack of space of which the painters had to work. Indeed, one is assured that the plastering and decoration had only been applied after the chapels for the coffin were put in place. The conditions of work can thus be imagined, in an almost enclosed space.
This probably explains also one of the facts which becomes more obvious when looking at the walls: the innumerable brown spots which more or less mutilate all the representations and which look like heaps of fungus. Carter thought that these mushrooms had been introduced by plaster or the painting, then that the humidity, which occurred following the evaporation from plaster, permitted their growth.
A survey led in 2011 shows that the brown colour is due to masses of melanine pigment produced by the metabolism of mushrooms, but maybe also from bacteria. No precise infectious agent has been recovered however, and the DNA research was negative. However that may be, these results confirm the fact that the funerary chamber was hastily decorated, and sealed whilst the pictorial layer was still wet. When it was completely dry, the micro-organisms disappeared and the stains stabilised. The curators considered, therefore, that they were part of the history of the tomb and didn't consider erasing them.
The image characters are on a large scale, which much reduces the number of scenes. The king is represented in front of divinities and in front of vignettes of the Amduat (= the underground world), all applied on a base of yellow-ochre to imitate the colour of gold. The sarcophagus chamber was moreover called "Room of Gold" by the Ancient Egyptians.
In each of the 4 walls, under the plaster, a small niche had been dug to receive protective figurines. For the niches of the walls west and south: see unidia-35406-03. For an example of a figurine, that of Anubis covered with cloth: see Carter photo.
The strokes of the painters is hasty but precise. The proportions of the characters appear to be exaggeratedly modified, close to the Amarna grid. This is no surprise, as the craftsmen had probably worked or been trained previously for Akhenaton.
Some motifs are a reminder of those used in the tombs of the last two "legitimate" predecessors of the king: his grandfather Amenhotep III and his great-grandfather Thutmosis IV. The base colour of the walls were also yellow-gold for the latter, on the other hand, blue-grey for Amenhotep III. On the other side, the employment of two previously nonroyal scene types (Tutankhamun's funeral cortege and Aye performing the Opening of the Mouth ritual on the King's mummy) has certainly been influenced by the use of similar tableaux in the Amarna royal tomb.
This is the one facing the visitor when looking into the burial chamber from the antechamber.
Three scenes follow each other from right to left:
In royal tombs this represents a unique representation: the new Pharaoh Ay, expressly named, carries out the "Opening of the Mouth" ceremony on his "father" Tutankhamun, although a lot younger than him (see unidia-35415). The new king is represented canonically youthful, in size a little lower than Tutankhamun. He is dressed in the panther skin of the sem-priest, he is wearing the blue crown (the Khepresh) with the uraeus and has white sandals on his feet. He plays here, therefore, the role usually reserved for the eldest of the sons of the deceased king which, while accomplishing the rituals, affirms his legitimacy. And it is clearly here about the old courtier claiming his - very questionable - right to the throne.
The text says: "The good god, Lord of the Two-lands, Lord of rituals, (the) King of Upper and Lower Egypt Kheper-kheperu-ra, (the) son of Ra, Divine-Father Ay, endowed eternally with life and forever like Ra".
Tutankhamun is represented as Osiris (see unidia-35414). He wears the Ureret crown with the uraeus and carries in his hand the Nekhakha whip and the flagellum, signs of his power. His great beard, with the hooked tip, indicates his status of glorified deceased. He carries around his neck a large Usekh necklace from which hangs a Kheper scarab which pushes the solar disk in front of it, a sign of rebirth.
Between the two, the casket containing the necessary objects for the ceremony, as always represented above, so that they can more easily be seen. The small vases contain wads of incense. The text says: "The good god, Lord of the Two-lands, Lord of the Crowns, (the) King of Upper and Lower Egypt Neb-kheperu-ra, (the) son of Ra, Tutankhamun, Master of the Heliopolis of the South (= Thebes), endowed with life, eternally".
The "Lord of the Two-lands Neb-kheperu-ra, endowed with life eternally and forever" is represented in the costume of the living. He is clothed with a loincloth which sits high on his hips. He wears a short wig, and holds in one hand a staff and in the other a club and the ankh-sign of life.
The rounded stomach and the king's face is typically post-Amarna, as testified even by the rounded skull, the very elongated eyes, the relatively long nose or the angle of the neck as it sits on the shoulders.
He is welcomed by the goddess of the sky, Nut. Nut is dressed in a tight-fitting dress with a single shoulder strap and around the waist a large red linen belt, whose flaps descend down to her calves. She also wears jewels, a wasekh-necklace and bracelets, whilst her wig is maintained by a white ribbon of mourning. In her stretched out hands are presented two trickles of water, as portrayed by the hieroglyph (Gardiner N35), that of water, which it is necessary here to be read "nyny", "welcome", as the text situated above specifies: "Nut, Mistress of the Sky, Lady of the Gods, she performs nyny (= a welcome) (for) the one whom she gave birth, she gives health and life to your nostrils, which is life eternally".
Third scene (see unidia-35409)
This represents three characters:
• The ka personified by the king
Behind the king is located his Ka, his "duplicate vitality". The idea of the ka is very complex and debated extensively. Man is born with his ka (which is sometimes called his duplicate), which constitutes his vital energy. But, after death, he combines with his ka (to die he is said to "pass into his ka"), whose function is different.
The ka image is covered with a tripartite wig surmounted by the ka hieroglyph (Gardiner D28) surrounding two signs which themselves read "powerful bull", an usual royal epithet. He wears the long hooked beard of the gods in the beyond. In one hand he holds the sign of life, and the other he places on the shoulder of the young king, who stands in front of him. A superimposable image is in the tomb of the Tutankhamun successor, Ay (see tb-35).
A short text defines him as "The royal ka of the one who is at the head of the changing room (of the royal palace)".
• The king
He is represented in the costume of the living, wearing the nemes headdress, but doesn't yet have the hooked beard of the gods. He embraces "Osiris, master of the west, the great god", who receives him, as the seen by the two hands shown coming out of the shroud. It should be noted that the king's two arms form an image close to that of the ka hieroglyph.
He wears the Ureret crown without an uraeus; his flesh is green, as the cadaver in putrefaction, but also as the vegetation which is born again after the flooding.
The representations here are based on a grid of 18 sections (no longer visible), and not on the Amarna grid of 20 sections, which was used for the rest of the chamber; it is therefore possible that they were of a different hand.
The first character, on the right, is the goddess Hathor, "Mistress of the sky, who is at the head of the western necropolis". She is clothed as she is on the north wall. On her head, she has the hieroglyph of the west (which allows her to merge with the goddess of the west). She holds an ankh sign in each hand, and stretches one of them toward the king's nostril (see unidia-35405).
• The king
This time, Tutankhamun is covered with the khat, this piece of cloth was in vogue in the Amarna period. He is in a passive attitude, facing the goddess, his arms at the side of his body. On his white loincloth, he has a piece of black cloth which rises up at the back and combines itself at the front to an embossed red belt and a multicoloured front piece. His wrists are enclosed with two large black bracelets edged with gold.
The god with the canine head, also represented in the Amarna style, holds in one hand a sign of life, whilst the other rests towards the shoulder of the young king, in a protective sign and also a sign of introduction. He is designated as "Anubis, at the head of the west, the great god who is in the place of embalming, master of the sky".
The area behind Anubis was been destroyed by Carter at the time of emptying of the room, and Isis as well as three other gods are no longer the tomb. Carter previously withdrew and secured the fragments, which should be in the store of the Service of the Antiques, somewhere in Luxor.
For the replica of the tomb, which should eventually replace visits to the true monument, Factum Arte created a facsimile from a black and white photo taken by Harry Burton.
• Behind Anubis is Isis
The goddess is clothed like Nut and, just like her makes the welcome nyny gesture, accompanied by this text: "Mistress of the sky, who offers welcome to the one whom she brought into the world, giving all health, all life [...] to your nostrils eternally".
• Three superimposed gods finish the wall
They are all squatting and all identified as "Great god, Lord of the Duat", which is not very enlightening as to their actual identity, nature and function. Maybe they are an abridgement symbolising the divinities which populate the underworld (not forgetting that the number three implies plurality).
West wall ( reconstitution)
This is the main wall of this burial chamber, which carries the representations and very short text excerpts of the first hour of the Book of the Amduat (= the Book of that which is in the Underworld). This hour is located when the sun is no longer visible, but where its last rays still illuminate the lands: for the Egyptians, this was the antechamber of the underground journey of the celestial body.
The Book of the Amduat was one of the funerary compositions of the New Kingdom imagined by the theologians to describe the nocturnal course of the sun during the twelve hours in the night, its regeneration and its rebirth in the morning, a destiny which the deceased wishes to share. The composition was reserved for a long time for only royal use (and some parts of would remain so), but a part of the composition, as well as of the abstracts, would be transcribed on papyrus, for the use of private individuals
• In the right-hand rectangle are five standing divinities (see unidia-35406-01): "The goddess Ma'at", "the Mistress of the barque", "Horus", "the Ka of Shu" and "Nehes". These are the ones who have been chosen by the theologians, among the hundreds which populated the underworld. They welcome the deceased into the underworld.
• Above, is a short text in red hieroglyphs, written without order, as it is in many of the others in the Book of the Amduat, it could be understood however by the introduced deceased: "The two Ma'ats who bind this god in the Mesektet which sails with the members of the assembly of this city". The Mesketet barque is the barque borrowed by the sun for its nocturnal journey in the beyond; after its rebirth, at dawn, it leaves it to embark on the Mandjet barque for its diurnal journey. The barque is pulled by the two Ma'at, one of the numerous examples of the omnipresent duality in Egyptian thought: these two Ma'at are the Two Lands, Upper and Lower Egypt, the right bank and the left bank, the double room of the courthouse, etc.).
• The left-hand table is canonical to the lower middle register of the first hour. Here can be seen the solar barque carrying the celestial body into the future in the form of the Khepri scarab, framed by two men in worship, whose divine nature is manifested by their curved beards, and each named "Osiris"; they represent Tutankhamun osirified.
The line of hieroglyphs which overhangs the scene continues the inscription of the right (in disorder once again): "among whom this god enters in the form of a ram". The ram is one of the hieroglyphs serving to write the word "ba" (Gardiner E10) , and it is in the form of the "ba" (ram) that the sun crosses the underworld; in the texts, he is invariably designated as "the Flesh". The fusion between Osiris and Re in the underworld has been summarised by theologians, as well in the royal tombs (in that of queen Nefertari, Great Royal Wife of Ramesses II, for example), or in that of the humble craftsman Nakhtamun (TT335 in Deir el-Medineh): "Osiris, he is the ba of Re, and Re is the ba of Osiris".
This is divided into twelve rectangles each including an identical baboon, symbolising the twelve hours in the night (see unidia-35408), a role usually reserved to twelve goddesses. All are named, with epithets sometimes appropriate to music and dance. In the "canonical" versions on the papyrus of the Amduat, these baboons are only nine in number. They welcome the solar barque at the beginning of its nocturnal journey. It should be remembered that these animals are equally related to the raised sun which they greet with a noisy scream.
This shows, in the upper register, which is the only one decorated, the funeral procession, a scene which as a rule is only found in private tombs. The king's mummy rests under a catafalque decorated with garlands, resting on a funerary barque; this last rests on a sledge pulled by high dignitaries.
The twelve men, of which none are named, wear white sandals and distribute themselves in five groups (see unidia-35416 and reconstitution). The are portrayed in a group of five at the front, three pairs and a finally a man on his own. All, except two viziers near the rear, present an identical aspect: clothed in a white tunic with broad sleeves, their black wigs are surrounded by a white ribbon of mourning, whose flaps hang down at the back.
The two characters with a shaven skull are certainly the two viziers of Upper and Lower Egypt (they could be Pentu and Usermontu) because they wear the tunic having the characteristic shoulder straps of this function (see unidia-35416-02). They do both have the white ribbon of mourning around their head.
The last character, who stands alone and closest to the mummy, is possibly the general Horemheb, or Maya, the chancellor, who were the highest dignitaries after Ay.
The text above this procession, states: "Words to be spoken by the courtiers and high officials of the house of the king who are hauling the Osiris king, the Lord of the Two Lands, Neb-kheperu-ra, to the west. They say the words: 'Oh Neb-kheperu-ra, come in peace, Oh protector god of the land.'."
The high barque-catafalque is decorated at its summit with a double frieze of protective cobras (the superimposition is subtle, there are in fact two chapels one in the other). The mummy of the deceased king is represented stretched out on a poorly sketched bed, with a Khepri scarab placed well in evidence. He is designated as: "The perfect god, master of the Two-lands, Neb-kheperu-ra, living eternally and forever".
At the mummy's feet is a small representation of Isis (close to the two rudders), whilst level with the mummy's head is her sister Nephthys. Both have their arms raised in worship. Behind Nephthys, nearer the front of the barque, can be found the king's representation as a sphinx, astride on top of a stand (see unidia-35417-01). An udjat eye is painted on the prow of the barque.
At the time of the opening of the chamber, this included four golden coloured wooden chapels (see unidia-35427) surrounding the central sarcophagus. This was constructed in red quartzite. Four protective goddesses are represented there in raised relief at the four corners: Isis, Nephthys, Selkis and Neith. They spread their protective wings on its four sides.
The king's mummy was placed in three sarcophaguses, the internal-most being the famous sarcophagus composed of 110.4Kg. of pure gold. The mummy itself was even dressed with the famous gold mask.
THE STORE CHAMBER - "TREASURY"
The north end of the east wall is pierced with an opening which gives access to a small chamber with uninscribed walls. It is oriented north-south, measuring 4.75 x 3.80m. It was nicknamed the "Treasury" by Carter, because at the time of the discovery, the most important objects of the tomb were found in it. The ground was strewn with all sorts of boxes surmounted by models of boats. All of these were dominated by an image of a reclining Anubis on a portable chapel, followed by the famous gilded head of the Hathor cow, behind which was the chapel containing the canopic jars protected by the four goddesses, Isis, Nephthys, Selkis ( vue gm-10) and Neith. This room had also received a visit by the pillagers, but the disorder which they left was put right by the inspectors more seriously than in the antechamber and the annexe.
OBJECTS OF THE TOMB
It is not necessary in this description of the tomb to mention in details the multiple objects which it contained.
An exhaustive list, with photos from the period, and complete reports of excavation are on the Ashmolean Museum site, under the category Tutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation.
FUTURE OF THE TOMB
The tomb is fragile and endangered by too many visitors: the long-term preservation of optimal conditions is vital in the conservation of the monument. So, it is unknown if the tomb will stay opened to the public or whether it will be replaced by the facsimile made by Factum Arte.
Indeed, after the meticulous work of scanning the tomb in situ, to precisely map the surfaces, in 2009, the reconstruction of the tomb ended in 2012. It wasn't easy if one believes the setbacks reported on the site of Factum arte, where the evolution of the work is told, thanks to many photographs; it is very interesting, just like the video. In March 2014, the tomb is taking shape, the pieces are being put together in a structure next to the Howard Carter House at the entrance to the Valley of the Kings (see NBC news) and it opened to the public in 2015.
This same year, Egyptologist Nicholas Reeves published "The Burial of Nefertiti?" (available online). Abstract : "Recently published, high-resolution scans of the walls of room J (the Burial Chamber) of Valley of the Kings tomb KV 62 (Tutankhamun) reveal, beneath the plastered surfaces of the painted scenes, distinct linear traces. These are here mapped, discussed, and tentatively identified as the “ghosts” of two hitherto unrecognized doorways. It is argued that these doorways give access to: (1) a still unexplored storage chamber on the west of room J, seemingly contemporary with the stocking of Tutankhamun’s burial; and (2) a pre-Tutankhamun continuation of KV 62 towards the north, containing the undisturbed burial of the tomb’s original owner – Nefertiti".
Investigations in the tomb have begun.
After September 2015's inspection, Egypt’s Antiquities minister Mamdouh Eldamaty confirmed the likely presence of two hidden chambers behind the western and northern walls of the tomb. “Based on these preliminary observations, the possible findings range from nothing at all or unfinished and closed corridors to storage chambers or intact burials with treasures”, said mummy expert Frank Rühli (University of Zurich).
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- Collective work under the direction of WEEKS Kent : La Vallée des Rois, Gründ, 2001
- WILKINSON Richard (Ed) : "Valley of the Sun Kings: New Explorations in the Tombs of the Pharaohs", The University of Arizona Egyptian Expedition, 1995
- WONG Lori (Editor) : "The Conservation and Management of the Tomb of Tutankhamen (KV 62). A Project Bibliography", The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2013 PDF
| Original web page and text created by Thierry Benderitter
English translation by Jon Hirst
Photographs by Unidia-Bruno Sandkühler, John Bodsworth
Gilberto Modonesi, Raymond Betz,
Howard Carter/Harry Burton
© OsirisNet 2016